Types of Software Testing
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Testing is the process of executing a program to find errors. To make our software perform well it should be error-free. If testing is done successfully it will remove all the errors from the software. In this article, we will discuss first the principles of testing and then we will discuss, the different types of testing.

Principles of Testing

All the tests should meet the customer’s requirements.

To make our software testing should be performed by a third party.

Exhaustive testing is not possible. As we need the optimal amount of testing based on the risk assessment of the application.

All the tests to be conducted should be planned before implementing it

It follows the Pareto rule(80/20 rule) which states that 80% of errors come from 20% of program components.

Start testing with small parts and extend it to large parts.

Types of Testing
Different Types of Software Testing

Manual Testing

Automation Testing

1. Manual Testing

Manual testing is a technique to test the software that is carried out using the functions and features of an application. In manual software testing, a tester carries out tests on the software by following a set of predefined test cases. In this testing, testers make test cases for the codes, test the software, and give the final report about that software. Manual testing is time-consuming because it is done by humans, and there is a chance of human errors.

Advantages of Manual Testing:

Fast and accurate visual feedback: It detects almost every bug in the software application and is used to test the dynamically changing GUI designs like layout, text, etc.

Less expensive: It is less expensive as it does not require any high-level skill or a specific type of tool.

No coding is required: No programming knowledge is required while using the black box testing method. It is easy to learn for the new testers.

Efficient for unplanned changes: Manual testing is suitable in case of unplanned changes to the application, as it can be adopted easily.

2. Automation Testing

Automated Testing is a technique where the Tester writes scripts on their own and uses suitable Software or Automation Tool to test the software. It is an Automation Process of a Manual Process. It allows for executing repetitive tasks without the intervention of a Manual Tester.

Advantages of Automation Testing:

Simplifies Test Case Execution: Automation testing can be left virtually unattended and thus it allows monitoring of the results at the end of the process. Thus, simplifying the overall test execution and increasing the efficiency of the application.

Improves Reliability of Tests: Automation testing ensures that there is equal focus on all the areas of the testing, thus ensuring the best quality end product.

Increases amount of test coverage: Using automation testing, more test cases can be created and executed for the application under test. Thus, resulting in higher test coverage and the detection of more bugs. This allows for the testing of more complex applications and more features can be tested.

Minimizing Human Interaction: In automation testing, everything is automated from test case creation to execution thus there are no changes for human error due to neglect. This reduces the necessity for fixing glitches in the post-release phase.

Types of Manual Testing

White Box Testing

Black Box Testing

Gray Box Testing

1. White Box Testing

White box testing techniques analyze the internal structures the used data structures, internal design, code structure, and the working of the software rather than just the functionality as in black box testing. It is also called glass box testing clear box testing or structural testing. White Box Testing is also known as transparent testing or open box testing.

White box testing is a software testing technique that involves testing the internal structure and workings of a software application. The tester has access to the source code and uses this knowledge to design test cases that can verify the correctness of the software at the code level.

Advantages of Whitebox Testing:

Thorough Testing: White box testing is thorough as the entire code and structures are tested.

Code Optimization: It results in the optimization of code removing errors and helps in removing extra lines of code.

Early Detection of Defects: It can start at an earlier stage as it doesn’t require any interface as in the case of black box testing.

Integration with SDLC: White box testing can be easily started in the Software Development Life Cycle.

Detection of Complex Defects: Testers can identify defects that cannot be detected through other testing techniques.

2. Black Box Testing

Black-box testing is a type of software testing in which the tester is not concerned with the internal knowledge or implementation details of the software but rather focuses on validating the functionality based on the provided specifications or requirements.

Advantages of Black Box Testing:

The tester does not need to have more functional knowledge or programming skills to implement the Black Box Testing.

It is efficient for implementing the tests in the larger system.

Tests are executed from the user’s or client’s point of view.

Test cases are easily reproducible.

It is used to find the ambiguity and contradictions in the functional specifications.

3. Gray Box Testing

Gray Box Testing is a software testing technique that is a combination of the Black Box Testing technique and the White Box Testing technique.

In the Black Box Testing technique, the tester is unaware of the internal structure of the item being tested and in White Box Testing the internal structure is known to the tester.

The internal structure is partially known in Gray Box Testing.

This includes access to internal data structures and algorithms to design the test cases.

Advantages of Gray Box Testing:

Clarity of goals: Users and developers have clear goals while doing testing.

Done from a user perspective: Gray box testing is mostly done from the user perspective.

High programming skills not required: Testers are not required to have high programming skills for this testing.

Non-intrusive: Gray box testing is non-intrusive.

Improved product quality: Overall quality of the product is improved.

Types of Black Box Testing

Functional Testing

Non-Functional Testing

1. Functional Testing

Functional Testing is a type of Software Testing in which the system is tested against the functional requirements and specifications. Functional testing ensures that the requirements or specifications are properly satisfied by the application. This type of testing is particularly concerned with the result of processing. It focuses on the simulation of actual system usage but does not develop any system structure assumptions. The article focuses on discussing function testing.

Benefits of Functional Testing:

Bug-free product: Functional testing ensures the delivery of a bug-free and high-quality product.

Customer satisfaction: It ensures that all requirements are met and ensures that the customer is satisfied.

Testing focussed on specifications: Functional testing is focussed on specifications as per customer usage.

Proper working of application: This ensures that the application works as expected and ensures proper working of all the functionality of the application.

Improves quality of the product: Functional testing ensures the security and safety of the product and improves the quality of the product.

2. Non-Functional Testing

Non-functional Testing is a type of Software Testing that is performed to verify the non-functional requirements of the application. It verifies whether the behavior of the system is as per the requirement or not. It tests all the aspects that are not tested in functional testing. Non-functional testing is a software testing technique that checks the non-functional attributes of the system. Non-functional testing is defined as a type of software testing to check non-functional aspects of a software application. It is designed to test the readiness of a system as per nonfunctional parameters which are never addressed by functional testing. Non-functional testing is as important as functional testing.

Benefits of Non-functional Testing

Improved performance: Non-functional testing checks the performance of the system and determines the performance bottlenecks that can affect the performance.

Less time-consuming: Non-functional testing is overall less time-consuming than the other testing process.

Improves user experience: Non-functional testing like Usability testing checks how easily usable and user-friendly the software is for the users. Thus, focus on improving the overall user experience for the application.

More secure product: As non-functional testing specifically includes security testing that checks the security bottlenecks of the application and how secure is the application against attacks from internal and external sources.

Types of Functional Testing

Unit Testing

Integration Testing

System Testing

1. Unit Testing

Unit testing is a method of testing individual units or components of a software application. It is typically done by developers and is used to ensure that the individual units of the software are working as intended. Unit tests are usually automated and are designed to test specific parts of the code, such as a particular function or method. Unit testing is done at the lowest level of the software development process, where individual units of code are tested in isolation.

Advantages of Unit Testing:

Some of the advantages of Unit Testing are listed below.

It helps to identify bugs early in the development process before they become more difficult and expensive to fix.

It helps to ensure that changes to the code do not introduce new bugs.

It makes the code more modular and easier to understand and maintain.

It helps to improve the overall quality and reliability of the software.

2. Integration Testing

Integration testing is a method of testing how different units or components of a software application interact with each other. It is used to identify and resolve any issues that may arise when different units of the software are combined. Integration testing is typically done after unit testing and before functional testing and is used to verify that the different units of the software work together as intended.

Different Ways of Performing Integration Testing:

Different ways of Integration Testing are discussed below.

Top-down integration testing: It starts with the highest-level modules and differentiates them from lower-level modules.

Bottom-up integration testing: It starts with the lowest-level modules and integrates them with higher-level modules.

Big-Bang integration testing: It combines all the modules and integrates them all at once.

Incremental integration testing: It integrates the modules in small groups, testing each group as it is added.

Advantages of Integrating Testing

It helps to identify and resolve issues that may arise when different units of the software are combined.

It helps to ensure that the different units of the software work together as intended.

It helps to improve the overall reliability and stability of the software.

It’s important to keep in mind that Integration testing is essential for complex systems where different components are integrated.

As with unit testing, integration testing is only one aspect of software testing and it should be used in combination with other types of testing such as unit testing, functional testing, and acceptance testing to ensure that the software meets the needs of its users.

3. System Testing

System testing is a type of software testing that evaluates the overall functionality and performance of a complete and fully integrated software solution. It tests if the system meets the specified requirements and if it is suitable for delivery to the end-users. This type of testing is performed after the integration testing and before the acceptance testing.

Advantages of System Testing:

The testers do not require more knowledge of programming to carry out this testing.

It will test the entire product or software so that we will easily detect the errors or defects that cannot be identified during the unit testing and integration testing.

The testing environment is similar to that of the real-time production or business environment.

It checks the entire functionality of the system with different test scripts and also it covers the technical and business requirements of clients.

After this testing, the product will almost cover all the possible bugs or errors and hence the development team will confidently go ahead with acceptance testing.

What are some tools used for software testing?

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